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Google Play商店放弃 APK,正式启用AAB 格式

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谷歌周三宣布,从 8 月 1 日起,Google Play 商店的 APP 格式将从“APK”正式改为“Android App Bundles”(AAB)。这意味着从 8 月 1 日起,所有新应用提交到 Google Play 商店 必须采用 AAB 格式。 但是,现有 APK 格式的应用程序仍然可以保持这种状态——至少目前是这样。

Android-App-Bundle.jpg

自从 Android 出现以来,Android 应用程序一直以 APK 格式发布。 APK 是 Android Package 的缩写,Android 应用程序的后缀, 一直是 Android 系统的程序规范包格式。 2018 年,Google 推出了一种新格式 AAB。 谷歌声称 AAB 应用了更强的数据编码和动态交互对策,应用程序体积会更小,下载速度会更快。 更重要的是,它扩展了应用程序包的定义,使其仅包含运行应用程序所需的代码。 在 Google Play 商店的数百万个应用程序中,有数千个应用程序使用了 AAB 格式。

归根结底,这对普通消费者来说是个好消息。 例如,AAB 格式的应用程序可以比 APK 应用程序缩小百分之十五。 开发人员还可以更好地控制他们如何向应用程序分发更新,这可能会导致应用程序更新更快、更高效。

但是,AAB 有两个重要问题。 首先,希望他们的应用出现在其他分发渠道(例如亚马逊应用商店或华为应用商店)中的开发者需要手动导出其应用程序的 APK 版本。 这并不需要开发者付出太多努力,但这意味着任何希望他们的应用只出现在 Play 商店中的开发者都具备这种能力。 在这种情况下,由于*.aab 文件在其他应用商店无法使用,最终用户需要自行将 AAB 导出为 Android APK。

另一个问题是开发人员需要向 Google 提供他们的应用程序签名密钥,以便将 AAB 应用程序导出为 APK 应用程序。 这给了谷歌相当大的权力。 应用程序签名密钥基本上是特定开发人员创建特定应用程序的证明。 尽管 Google 不太可能这样做,但它可能会代表开发人员签署应用程序。 也有可能有人可以获得此密钥,然后为自己签署应用程序。 因此,一些开发人员对 AAB 格式不是很感兴趣。

无论如何,Google Play 商店中所有新的 Android 应用程序都必须采用 AAB 格式。 应用程序开发人员无法绕过。 对于谷歌来说,这是一个大胆的摆脱 APK 格式的新方向,但对于未来,外界还需要等到尘埃落定再下结论。

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